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U.S. Entrepreneurial Invisible Colleges:Infused and Disassociated Cultures

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Kevin W. Prine, ?Professor and Chair of Business and Leadership, William Jewell College, USA

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ABSTRACT (Title: 10pt: Centered: Captial: Bold)

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(Text: 10pt: Roman Times font: Justified: Indentation: 1.8 cm)Small, nonselective, resource-poor colleges and universities educate approximately one-quarter of the undergraduates in the United States. Due to increasing costs, a greater use of technology, and a more competitive market, these institutions will likely face a difficult environment in the coming decades.  One way that a few of these colleges are addressing these problems has been to build or acquire nontraditional sources of revenue ¡V businesses that may or may not be a core piece of their original mission. Graceland University and its ownership of the world¡¦s largest seminar company and Brigham Young University ¡V Hawaii and its origination of Hawaii¡¦s most successful tourist attraction work as excellent case studies for discovering the ways in which a nontraditional revenue source can impact institutional planning and the organizational culture of the campus.
Keywords: Invisible Colleges, Entrepreneurial Invisibles, Disassociated Cultures

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INTRODUCTION (Title: 10pt: Centered: Capital: Bold)

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While these two examples illustrate the range of connectedness between the nontraditional revenue generator and its college, it was found that the institutions were comparable in their overall adherence to the principles found in the entrepreneurial literature. The differences in that adherence between the two institutions provide a good cross-case analysis for other institutions that may be looking at this technique for raising revenues. Additionally, it was discovered that an entrepreneurial invisible does not have to compromise its own educational character in order to maintain a successful nontraditional revenue stream, although the two have an impact on each other¡¦s culture. Additionally, although there are benefits for a college that acts entrepreneurially, the additional expertise and budget variability create new challenges for institutional leadership and planning.

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Definitions (Sub-Title: 10pt: Aligned Left: Title Case: Bold)

Invisibles? In 1972, Alexander Astin and Calvin Lee coined the term, ¡§invisible colleges,¡¨ in reference to four-year higher education institutions in the United States that were neither big nor selective, and therefore, though playing an important role in the higher education landscape, were not as noticeable as large and medium-sized public universities and prestigious private colleges.


Figure 1:?Similarities between Clark¡¦s Entrepreneurials and MBM Components

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